1. Sruti in Ancient, Medieval and Modern Contexts   by Dr.N.Ramanathan, Head, Department of Music, Madras University, Chennai on Sruthis. This article puts the entire subject in proper perspective and is a refreshing departure from the practice of assigning frequencies to the 22 sruthis (in my view, without adequate analytical evidence on present day music) The article was first published under the title "SRUTI-S ACCORDING TO ANCIENT TEXTS" in the Journal of the Indian Musicological Society, Baroda. Sept. & Dec.1981, Vol.12, No.s 3&4, pp.31-37. It was later revised and presented as a paper at seminar under the title "SRUTI - ITS UNDERSTANDING IN THE ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIODS" in the National Seminar on Perpetuation and Preservation of Indian Classical Music, Historical Continuity

2. The web sites
are maintained by Dr.N.Ramanathan.The first has a large number of research oriented articles by different scholars and the second is store house of old books/manuscrupts


3. "Synthesizing Carnatic Music with a Computer" . Article by M.Subramanian (author of this web site) published in Sangeet Natak (Journal of Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, India) No's 133,134, 1999, pp 16-24.

4. "An analysis of Gamakams using the Computer" by M.Subramanian published in Sangeet Natak, Vol.XXXVII, Number 1. 2002, pp 26-47. This article analyses the gamaakms of of Maayaamaalavagowla sung/played by different artistes and also has appendices on techniques of frequency analysis of digital music, the cyclic cent system etc.

5. "Carnatic Ragam Thodi: Pitch Analysis of Notes and Gamakams" by M.Subramanian published in Sangeet Natak, VolXLI, No.1, 2007 pp 3-28..

6. "The 'Maya' of Pitch and Frequency" is an article by M.Subramanian, included in the web site of Dr.Ramanathan (2 above) and explains the inappropriateness of totally correlating pitch and frequency especially for notes sung entirely with gamakam. The zip file which can be downloaded in the link above contains the article, the audio referred to therein and the Gaayaka file from which it was generated.

7. "Carnatic Music: Automatic Computer Synthesis of Gamakams" - Article by M.Subramanian, published in 'Sangeet Natak',Vol. XLIII, Nov., 2009. A brief description of the subject with audio samples are available at http://gamakam.tripod.com.

8. A paper was presented in the 2nd Computer Music Workshop held at Istanbul on the 12th and 13 July, 2012, on the above subject of Automatic Gamakam insertion covering in addition to the basic question of insertion of gamakam, other aspects involved in transformig printed notation or notation available on the internet, into full fledged notation with gamakam. The paper is available here. The presentation slides (converted into html format) along with audio links maybe seen here.

A slide set of the lecture demonstration by M.Subramanian in Music Acadamy, Chennai on 17, Dec., 2012 on the same subject is available here.

9. "The Implied Samvaditva in Carnatic Music" Article by M.Subramanian, published in 'Samakalika Sangeetham',(Kozhikode),No.8, April,2010.

10. (Not an article) A web page on the current Carnatic Music Notation system used in printed material. (I find that this is the only page available on the internet covering all aspects of this subject). Unfortunately there are a variety of systems used on the internet for writing Carnatic Music Notation.


Dr. Madhumohan Komaragiri , musician and musicologist has worked on pitch analysis of Carnatic Music using the computer and the concept of 22 Sruthis as part of his Ph.D. thesis. His publications may be accessed at www.madhumohan.com/musicologist.htm. The home page of his web site has many more links.